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Working principle of slow wire processing

 Slow wire walking, also called low-speed wire walking, is a kind of CNC machining machine tool that uses continuously moving fine metal wire as an electrode to pulse spark discharge on the workpiece to generate a high temperature of over 6000 degrees, ablate metal and cut into a workpiece. The principle of wire processing is the phenomenon that there is a gap between the wire electrode and the workpiece, and the metal is removed by continuous discharge. Since the slow-moving wire cutting machine adopts the method of wire electrode continuous feeding, that is, the wire electrode is processed during the movement, so even if the wire electrode is worn out, it can be continuously supplemented, so it can improve the machining accuracy of the parts and slow the wire. The surface roughness of the workpiece processed by the cutting machine can usually reach Ra=0.8μm and above, and the roundness error, linear error and dimensional error of the slow-moving wire cutting machine are much better t

Hydrostatic guideway of CNC machining lathe

The static pressure slide rail (TTW guide) of the CNC machining lathe transfers the oil with a certain pressure through the throttle to the oil cavity between the sliding surfaces of the slide rail (TTW guide) to form a pressure oil film to float the moving parts , Make the sliding rail (TTW guide) surface in a pure liquid friction state.   CNC machining General CNC machining usually refers to computer digital control precision machining, CNC machining lathe, CNC machining milling machine, CNC machining c17200   beryllium   copper   and milling machine, etc. The feed route of finishing is basically carried out along the part contour sequence. Therefore, the focus of determining the feed route is to determine the feed route of rough machining and idle stroke. In the numerical control processing, the control system issues instructions to make the tool perform various motions that meet the requirements, and the shape and size of the workpiece are expressed in the form of numbers and lette

Introduction of KOVAR parts

KOVAR parts are commonly used as metal casing materials in the electronic packaging industry. Because they have a linear expansion coefficient close to that of molybdenum group glass, and can produce less sealing stress during the sealing (melting) process with molybdenum group glass, so To obtain good air-tightness, in order to make the metal tube and shell to achieve air-tight sealing, in the entire sealing process, the annealing process undoubtedly plays an important role as a link between the previous and the next. The internal stress generated during KOVAR  machining also prepares the material structure for the implementation of the subsequent process-the sealing process of the metal parts. The main purpose of annealing Kovar shell before sealing is to: (1) Eliminate machining stress. When Kovar undergoes plastic machining deformation during cold working, about 10% to 15% of the applied energy is converted into internal energy, which is commonly referred to as internal stress,

I explained the advanced titanium smelting method

The raw material for the production of titanium metals is mainly rutile, which contains more than 96% TiO 2. In countries without rutile, such as the Soviet Union, ilmenite “titanium slag” containing about 20% TiO 2 is used. Reserves are decreasing due to the increase in natural rutile. Countries tend to use ilmenite to produce titanium-rich materials such as high titanium slag and synthetic rutile.
Titanium was discovered in 1791, but the first pure titanium was manufactured in 1910 and has been in the middle for over 100 years. The reason is that titanium is very active at high temperatures and easily binds to oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and other elements. Extraction of pure titanium requires very harsh conditions.
Industrially, sulfuric acid is used to decompose ilmenite to produce titanium dioxide, and titanium dioxide is used to obtain titanium metal. Terrestrial ilmenite concentrated sulfuric acid (concentrate), next chemical reaction:
FeTiO3 + 3H2SO4 == Ti (SO4) 2 + FeSO4 + 3H2O

FeTiO3 + 2H2SO4 == TiOSO4 + FeSO4 + 2H2O

FeO + H2SO4 == FeSO4 + H2O

Fe2O3 + 3H2SO4 == Fe2 (SO4) 3 + 3H2O
In order to remove the impurity Fe2 (SO4) 3, iron scrap was added, Fe3 + was reduced to Fe2 +, the solution was cooled to 273K or less, and FeSO4.7H2O (green cerium) was crystallized as a by-product. .. ..
Water with Ti (SO4) 2 and TiOSO4 precipitated a white metatitanic acid precipitate. The reaction is as follows:

Ti (SO4) 2 + H2O == TiOSO4 + H2SO4
TiOSO4 + 2H2O == H2TiO3 + H2SO4
Preparation of titanium dioxide by calcination of metatitanic acid:
H2TiO3 == TiO2 + H2O

Titanium is manufactured industrially, and titanium tetrachloride is reduced by the metal fume fever reduction method. Mix TiO2 (or natural rutile) and charcoal powder at 1000-1100K. Chlorinated, obtained TiCl 4, steam condensed.
TiO2 + 2C + 2Cl2 = TiCl4 + 2CO
Liquid titanium
TiCl4 was reduced at 1070K with molten magnesium in argon to give a porous titanium sponge.
TiCl4 + 2Mg = 2MgCl2 + Ti

Titanium sponges were crushed and placed in a vacuum arc furnace to finally prepare various titanium materials.
You can also react as follows: Ti + 2CI2 = TiCI4

TiCI4 is obtained by high temperature decomposition (about 1250 degrees): TiCI4 = Ti + 2CI2
This gives a titanium rod.

Characteristics and applications of titanium and titanium alloys
Pure titanium is a silver-white metal with many excellent properties. Titanium has a density of 4.54 g / cm3, which is 43% lighter than steel. It’s a little heavier than magnesium. The mechanical strength is about the same as the strength of steel, the strength of steel is twice that of aluminum, and the strength of magnesium is five times that of magnesium. Titanium has high heat resistance and has a melting point of 1942K, which is about 1000K higher than gold and about 500K higher than steel.
Titanium is a more chemically active metal. When heated, it can also be used on non-metals such as O2, N2, H2, S and halogens. However, at room temperature, a very thin and dense oxide protective film is likely to be formed on the surface of titanium, which withstands the action of strong acid or aqua regia and exhibits strong corrosion resistance. Therefore, in general, metals are eroded in acid, alkali and salt solutions, but titanium is safe.
Liquid titanium dissolves almost all metals and can be alloyed with many metals. Titanium steel added to titanium steel is tough and elastic. Titanium and metals Al, Sb, Be, Cr, Fe and the like form gap compounds or intermetallic compounds.
Titanium aircraft weigh the same as other metal aircraft, but carry more than 100 passengers. The manufactured submarines are not only resistant to seawater corrosion, but also resistant to deep pressure. Its inundation depth is 80% higher than that of stainless steel submarines. At the same time, titanium is non-magnetic and is not found by land mines. It has a good anti-surveillance effect.

Titanium has “probiotic” properties. In the human body, it is resistant to erosion of secretions, is non-toxic and is suitable for any sterilization method. Therefore, it is widely used in the manufacture of medical devices. Artificial hip joints, knee joints, shoulder joints, lower limb joints, skulls, active heart valves, bone fixation clips. When new muscle fibers are wrapped around these “titanium bones,” these titanium bones begin to maintain normal human activity.

Titanium is widely distributed in the human body, and its normal human body content does not exceed 15 mg per 70 kg of body weight. The effect is not clear. However, titanium has been shown to stimulate phagocytes and enhance immunity.

Use of titanium compounds
Important titanium compounds are titanium dioxide (TiO2), titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and barium titanate (BaTiO3). Pure titanium dioxide is a white powder and is an excellent white pigment under the trade name “titanium dioxide”. It combines the long-lasting properties of white lead (PbCO3) and zinc white (ZnO). Therefore, titanium dioxide is often added to paints to produce fine white paints, such as pulp as a filler in the paper industry, as a matting agent for rayon in the textile industry, and as an additive in the glass, ceramic and enamel industries. Added to improve performance. Used as a catalyst in many chemical reactions. Today, with the development of the chemical industry, titanium dioxide and titanium compounds have high added value as fine chemical products, and the outlook is very attractive.
Titanium tetrachloride is a colorless liquid with a melting point of 250K, a boiling point of 409K, and a pungent odor. It is easily hydrolyzed in water or moist air and has a lot of white smoke.
TiCl4 + 3H2O == H2TiO3 + 4HCl
Therefore, TiCl4 is used as a military artificial aerosol and is used for maritime work. In agriculture, people use thick fog formed of TiCl4 to reduce heat loss at night and protect vegetables and crops from cold and frost.
Pure titanium
Melting TiO2 and BaTiO3 to give titanate:
TiO2 + BaCO3 == BaTiO3 10 CO2

Artificially manufactured BaTiO 3 has a high dielectric constant, capacitors manufactured using it have a larger capacitance, and more importantly, BaTiO 3 has a remarkable “piezoelectric property”. Have. When the crystals are pressurized, they generate electricity. When you turn on the power, its shape changes. People put it in ultrasound and when it is pressurized it produces electricity. By measuring the current intensity, the intensity of ultrasonic waves can be measured. It is used in almost all ultrasonic measuring instruments. With the development and utilization of titanates, it is increasingly being used to produce non-linear components. Dielectric amplifiers, computer storage devices, microcapacitors, electroplating materials, aerospace materials, ferromagnetic materials, semiconductor materials, optical instruments, reagents, etc.

The excellent properties of titanium, titanium alloys and titanium compounds make them urgently needed. However, high manufacturing costs limit applications.
In the near future, we believe that the continuous improvement and improvement of titanium smelting technology will further advance the application of titanium, titanium alloys and titanium compounds.

Titanium products:
Titanium and titanium alloys are very important lightweight structural materials and have very important applicability and wide applicability in the fields of aerospace, vehicle engineering and biomedical engineering.
Type: Titanium Iodine, Pure Industrial Titanium, Alpha Titanium, Beta Titanium, Alpha + Beta Titanium

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