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Working principle of slow wire processing

 Slow wire walking, also called low-speed wire walking, is a kind of CNC machining machine tool that uses continuously moving fine metal wire as an electrode to pulse spark discharge on the workpiece to generate a high temperature of over 6000 degrees, ablate metal and cut into a workpiece. The principle of wire processing is the phenomenon that there is a gap between the wire electrode and the workpiece, and the metal is removed by continuous discharge. Since the slow-moving wire cutting machine adopts the method of wire electrode continuous feeding, that is, the wire electrode is processed during the movement, so even if the wire electrode is worn out, it can be continuously supplemented, so it can improve the machining accuracy of the parts and slow the wire. The surface roughness of the workpiece processed by the cutting machine can usually reach Ra=0.8μm and above, and the roundness error, linear error and dimensional error of the slow-moving wire cutting machine are much better t

How Do Cnc Swiss Machines Work

How Do Cnc Swiss Machines Work Save 0 What Is Swiss Machine –The full name of the walking CNC lathe, it can also be called the spindle box mobile CNC automatic lathe, the economical turning and milling compound machine tool or the slitting lathe. It belongs to precision machining equipment, which can complete compound  machining such as turning, milling, drilling, boring, tapping, and engraving at one time. It is mainly used for batch  machining of precision hardware and special-shaped shafts. This machine tool first originated in Germany and Switzerland. In the early stage, it was mainly used for precision machining of military equipment. With the continuous development and expansion of industrialization, due to the urgent needs of the market, it was gradually applied to the  machining of civilian products; the development of similar machine tools in Japan and South Korea Earlier than China, it was mainly used in the military industry in the early days. After the war, it was gradually

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Spring Design Attention And Roll Forming Method The coiling characteristics and methods of springs are divided into cold coiling method and hot coiling method. Cold winding method: When the diameter of the spring wire is less than 8mm, the cold winding method is adopted. High-quality carbon spring steel wire is usually first cold drawn and then heat treated. After winding, it is generally not quenched, but only tempered at low temperature to eliminate the internal stress during winding. Hot-rolling method: Springs with larger diameter (>8mm) spring wire should use hot-rolling method. Hot rolled springs must be quenched and tempered at medium temperature. The Design Process Of Various Springs ·          Installation space: When designing a  compression spring , it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the space required for the installation of the spring, in order to effectively grasp the basic manufacturing conditions of the compression spring, including the outer diam

China Hardware Has Summarized the Characteristics of Quenching Cracks, Forging Cracks and Grinding Cracks as Well as Their Differences

Keywords:The characteristics and differences of quenching crack,forging crack and grinding crack are summarized by China Hardware

Quenching crack is a common quenching defect, and the causes are various. Because the defect of heat treatment starts from the product design, the work of preventing crack should start from the product design. The material should be chosen correctly, the structure design should be carried out reasonably, the technical requirements of heat treatment should be put forward, the process route should be arranged properly, the heating temperature, the holding time, the heating medium, the cooling medium, the cooling method and the operation mode should be selected reasonably.


  1. Carbon is an important factor affecting the tendency of quenching cracking. With the increase of carbon content, the MS point decreases and the tendency of quenching crack increases. Therefore, under the condition of satisfying basic properties such as hardness and strength, lower carbon content should be selected as far as possible to ensure that it is not easy to crack.


  1. The influence of alloying elements on quenching tendency is mainly reflected in the influence of hardenability, MS point, grain size growth tendency and decarbonization. Alloying elements affect the tendency of quenching through their influence on hardenability. Generally speaking, hardenability increases and hardenability increases, but at the same time, quenching medium with weak cooling ability can be used to reduce quenching deformation to prevent deformation and crack of complex parts. Therefore, for the parts with complex shapes, in order to avoid quenching cracks, it is a better plan to choose steel with good hardenability and use quenching medium with weak cooling capacity.


Generally speaking, the lower the MS point, the greater the quenching tendency of steel. When the MS point is high, the martensite generated by phase transformation may be self-tempered immediately, so as to eliminate part of the phase transition stress and avoid quenching. Therefore, when the carbon content is determined, steel with a small amount of alloying elements or elements that have little effect on the MS point should be selected.


When choosing steel, the sensitivity to overheating should be considered. Overheat sensitive steel, easy to crack, so in the selection of materials should be paid attention to.


Structural design of parts

Uniform section size. The parts with rapid change in section size will crack due to internal stress during heat treatment. Therefore, the design should try to avoid the abrupt change of section size. The wall thickness should be uniform. If necessary, holes can be opened in thick wall parts not directly related to the use. Holes should be made through holes as far as possible. For parts with different thicknesses, they can be designed separately and assembled after heat treatment.


Fillet transition. When the parts have edges, sharp corners, grooves and transverse holes, these parts are easy to produce stress concentration, resulting in parts quenching crack. To this end, the parts should be designed as far as possible not to occur stress concentration shape, in the sharp corners and steps processing into rounded corners.


Differences in cooling rate caused by shape factors. The cooling speed of parts quenching is different with the different shapes of parts. Even in different parts of the same part, there will be different cooling rates due to various factors. Therefore, excessive cooling differences should be avoided as far as possible to prevent quenching cracks.


Technical conditions for heat treatment

1.Use local quenching or surface hardening as far as possible.


2.Adjust the local hardness of the quenched parts according to the service conditions of the parts. When the local quenching hardness requirement is low, try not to force the whole hardness to be consistent.

3. Note the mass effect of steel.

4.Avoid tempering in the first type of tempering brittle zone.


Arrange process route and process parameters reasonably

When the steel material, structure and technical conditions are determined, the heat treatment process personnel will carry out process analysis, determine the reasonable process route, that is, the correct arrangement of preparation heat treatment, cold working and hot working process position and determine the heating parameters.


Quenching crack

At 1.500x, the crack was serrated, the initial crack was wide, and the end crack was fine to none.


Microscopic analysis: abnormal metallurgical inclusion, crack morphology is serrated extension; After corrosion with 4% nitric acid alcohol, no decarbonization phenomenon was observed. The microscopic morphology is shown in the following figure:

No abnormal metallurgical inclusions were found at the crack of the product, and no decarbonization phenomenon was found. The crack extended in serrated shape and had the typical characteristics of quenching crack.

Analysis conclusion:

The composition of the sample meets the standard requirements and corresponds to the composition of the original furnace number.


According to the microscopic analysis, no abnormal metallurgical inclusions were found at the crack of the sample, and no decarbonization phenomenon was found. The crack extended in serrated shape and had the typical characteristics of quenching crack.


Forging crack

Crack caused by typical material, edge of oxide.

Microscopic observations

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